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  • “After numerous years working with Adenna gloves I am proud to say these are the best gloves in the industry. Not only do they last the duration of multi hour tattoo sessions without breaking or snapping. The texture and thickness of these gloves are perfect. So from one artist to another I highly recommend these...More >
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    Heart & Huntington Tattoo Company, Las Vegas, NV
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    Science, Research Lab Supply Dealer, California

Disposable Gloves General

1) Can I use hand lotion under disposable gloves?

We recommend only using hand lotion between or after glove use. If you must use hand cream or lotion under Adenna gloves, choose a water-based moisturizer, because petroleum- or oil-based products may deteriorate the gloves’ barrier properties.

2) Why do some gloves produce brown stains after I put them on?

This discoloration is typically a result of the chemical reaction between your skin and the gloves. Before putting on gloves, your hands might come in contact with copper, iron or metal material—such as coins—or you may have heavy acidic perspiration in your hands. These brown stains do not affect the barrier properties of gloves.

3) How can I tell if a glove has degraded and should not be used?

Some signs that a glove may have degraded include:

> If it turns hard or brittle or loses elasticity
> If it becomes too soft and doesn’t return to shape after stretching
> Change of color in the glove may be a warning sign, too.

DO NOT use gloves that show signs of degradation—always follow Adenna’s storage guidelines to preserve your gloves’ shelf life, and rotate stock by practicing FIFO (first-in first-out) inventory control.

4) What are the storage guidelines for Adenna gloves?

You should always store Adenna gloves in their original packaging in a cool, dry and well-ventilated place. Keep them away from dust, sunlight, fluorescent lighting, moisture, x-rays and heat above 100°F (37°C).

5) Are powder-free gloves completely powder free?

Due to the different manufacturing processes for powder free gloves, they are not 100% powder free. The definition of powder according to the ASTM is anything that does not pass through a 2.7 micrometer glass microfiber filter by using suction filtration.

These may include cornstarch, calcium carbonate aggregates, latex particles, synthetic debris, packaging fibers, non-soluble lubricants, dust, etc. Currently, Adenna manufactures all powder-free exam gloves at a maximum powder limit of 2 mg per glove.

6) What kind of powder does Adenna use on the gloves?

Adenna uses only USP (United States Pharmacopeia) absorbable dusting powder or modified cornstarch on the powdered gloves as a donning agent. We also use calcium carbonate as a mold-releasing agent to aid in removing gloves from the formers (hand molds) during manufacturing.

7) How Do I choose the correct glove for me?

Whatever your needs call for, there is an Adenna glove for the job. That’s why it is so important to select the right glove. To help you narrow down your search, here are four important factors to keep in mind.

Barrier Protection
This is the main reason that we wear gloves-so be sure that the gloves you are choosing are up to the task at hand. Typically, high-quality latex or nitrile gloves are suitable for high-risk performance, such as in healthcare applications where you may be in contact with blood-borne pathogens or hazardous substances. Vinyl gloves may be used in low-risk applications.

Fit & Comfort
Like any performance apparel, your gloves should fit well and feel comfortable. Here are some general properties associated with each glove category:

  • Latex – Highly elastic and with good “memory.” These almost always offer a great fit.
  • Nitrile – Vary in softness and flexibility depending on your need, from comfortable and smooth to stiffer and more rigid.
  • Vinyl – Typically loose and baggy in fit, but soft and comfortable.

Allergic Reactions to Latex

If you are allergic or sensitive to latex, or work in a latex-free environment, you should avoid all latex products and choose gloves composed of nitrile or vinyl instead. If you still must use latex gloves, we recommend choosing a powder-free glove with reduced protein content.

Unfortunately, if you suffer from Type IV Chemical Hypersensitivity, switching to a non-latex glove may not alleviate your symptoms. This is because the chemicals you may be reacting to could be added in the process of manufacturing non-latex gloves as well.

The Almighty Dollar
Cost, of course, is often a concern when choosing a glove. After taking into consideration the points discussed above, you’ll have to weigh the cost against your acceptable quality standards, and decide on the product that provides the best value for your budget. In general, vinyl gloves tend to be more affordable while nitrile and latex gloves are usually at a higher price point.

8) What's the difference between glove materials?

Many different glove materials are available today, and each of them features different performance, durability, cost and other characteristics. Use the table below as a quick reference to help decide which glove material is most appropriate for your needs.

Latex – (Natural Rubber Latex)Vinyl – (Polyvinyl Chloride, PVC)Nitrile – (Acrylonitrile Butadiene)
Barrier ProtectionExcellentFair to PoorExcellent
Strength and DurabilityExcellentPoorExcellent
Puncture ResistanceGoodPoorExcellent
Chemical ResistanceGoodPoorExcellent
Fit and ComfortExcellentFairExcellent to Good
Protein AllergyDepends on glovesNoneNone
CostLow to ModerateLow to ModerateModerate to High
9) What makes Adenna Gloves the Best?

A glove is a glove, right? Not exactly. They may look similar at first glance, but there is so much more than meets the eye. Adenna examination gloves are manufactured to the highest-possible standards of quality to ensure exceptional performance, protection, fit and comfort. We are serious about making the best gloves in the world, and that commitment can be felt in every pair you wear.

– Lowest allowable protein claim on PF latex exam gloves with 50 mg/dm2 or less of protein
– Natural, even color throughout each glove with a clean surface
– Specially formulated to feature a tacky surface that enhances grip of latex and nitrile gloves
– Ergonomically designed for maximum comfort and good fit
– Flat stacking in dispensing boxes makes dispensing of gloves easy and less wasteful
– Consistent quality meeting or exceeding required ASTM’s AQL standards
– Manufactured at ISO quality certified facilities

– No specific protein claim or higher latex protein content
– Dull, uneven color, or discolored with a rough, uneven surface
– Uneven or over-chlorination leaves gloves slippery and with chlorine odor
– Poor and overly tight fit, short fingers cause strain and fatigue
– Carelessly stuffed into dispensing box, making dispensing a headache
– Inconsistent quality and manufactured with less stringent quality control
– Lower-quality manufactured at non-ISO quality certified facilities

Latex allergies and hypersensitivity

10) What are latex allergies?

Some individuals may experience discomfort in the hands or have allergic reactions when wearing or after wearing latex gloves. These reactions range from dry, itchy, crusty skin with cracks or sores to a runny nose, wheezing, difficulty breathing, swelling in the face, cramps and shock. Rare cases can even be potentially life threatening.

Fortunately, Adenna offers non-latex glove options that can eliminate these reactions to rubber latex.

11) What are the different types of hypersensitivity?
Reaction TypeSymptomsPossible Cause
Irritant Contact Dermatitis (non-allergic)Rash, dry flaky skin with papules, cracks and soresToo frequent hand washing, glove powder, detergents and soaps used in washing hands
Type IV – Chemical hypersensitivity (cell-mediated allergy)Eczema, itching or inflammation of skin, formation of scales, 48 to 96 hours after contactResiduals of chemicals used in processing of gloves
Type I – Latex  protein hypersensitivity (IgE mediated allergy)Immmediate localized itching, burning and discomfort, hives within 5 to 60 minutes after exposure, rhinitis, asthma and in serious cases, anaphylactic shock and in rare cases, death.Residual extractable protein in natural rubber latex products
12) Who is at risk?

Latex allergies emerged as a medical concern in the early ‘90s, and affect approximately 2-3% of the general population in the United States, including up to 10% of healthcare workers.

Healthcare workers, children and individuals with spina bifida, persons with multiple operations and certain industry workers—such as those in the rubber latex industry—are at higher risk for hypersensitivity than the general population.

13) Does glove powder cause latex allergy?

Glove powder is used in the manufacturing process as a mold-releasing agent and a donning lubricant. It is also believed to be one possible cause of sensitization. However, it is important to understand that glove powder or cornstarch powder itself is not known to be an allergen.

It is during the manufacturing process whereby the glove powder can absorb some soluble protein, and via aerosolization when donning or changing gloves, these powder particles become airborne. Inhalation or direct contact with these powder particles is alleged to bring about allergic reactions.

This is why it is important to use only latex gloves with low protein content, such as the entire family of Adenna latex examination gloves.

Remember: not all powder free gloves have a low protein level. There are powder-free gloves that contain a high level of latex protein. Choose only gloves that are marked as low protein, preferably less than 50 µg/dm2 of glove.

14) Is there a limit on protein levels on latex exam gloves?

The FDA and ASTM have established the lowest allowable water-soluble protein claim for any exam gloves to be 50 mg/dm2 of glove. All Adenna powder free latex exam gloves have received FDA 510(k) letters to be lawfully marketed with such a low protein claim. This protein claim can be found on the Adenna latex exam glove dispensing box.

15) How can I protect my patients and myself from latex allergy?

All patients should be questioned about a history of latex allergies when being admitted. A history suggestive of reactions to latex may include any symptoms suffered from contact with rubber products. Patients who have latex allergy or patients with spina bifida, regardless of their history, should be treated in a latex-free environment.

Many medical facilities have chosen to use only low-protein, powder-free gloves to help prevent latex allergies. If you are at a high risk of developing latex allergies, non-latex synthetic gloves such as vinyl or nitrile gloves should be considered, and glove usage should be minimized.

In addition, you can protect yourself by:
> Learning to recognize different symptoms of latex allergies.
> Avoid direct contact with latex products immediately upon experiencing symptoms, and see a physician who is experienced in treating latex allergy.
> Cease contact with all latex products and latex gloves, and warn your employers, coworkers, physicians, nurses and dentists that you have latex allergy.
> Reduce your exposure to latex gloves and the powder from latex gloves worn by others. Monitor your symptoms closely and, whenever possible, substitute any latex products with non-latex products.

For more information on latex allergy, please consult with your physician or an allergist.

Irritant Contact Dermatitis

16) What can I do to help relieve or treat Irritant Contact Dermatitis or Type IV – Chemical Hypersensitivity?

>Consult with your physician, an occupational health professional or a dermatologist.
> Use powder-free gloves that are low in chemicals.
> Try wearing cotton or nylon glove liners.
> Change gloves frequently.
> Change detergents or soaps used in washing hands.
> Wear larger size gloves to allow for air circulation.
> Switch to a different brand of gloves.
> Use anti-inflammatory or healing hand lotions or hand creams in between or after glove use.

17) How can you treat Type I – Latex Protein Hypersensitivity?

Medications are available to help alleviate some symptoms of latex allergy, but there is currently no permanent treatment or cure.

USDA, Food Handling

18) Do Adenna gloves comply with the USDA requirements for safe use in food handling?

Yes! Adenna gloves are made in compliance with the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), making them safe for all kinds of food preparation and handling procedures, including preparing, washing and processing meat, poultry, seafood, vegetables, desserts, beverages, etc.

This chlorination process removes powder and breaks down latex protein as well as chemical residue on or near the glove surface. Through multiple washing and leaching processes, the protein and chemicals are further reduced to produce Adenna Gold latex exam gloves that meet the FDA’s lowest allowable protein claim of less than 50 µg/dm2 of glove.

Chlorination Process

19) What is a chlorination process in manufacturing gloves?

Chlorination refers to when chlorine, ammonia, water and other chemicals are used in the manufacturing of gloves. For example, Adenna Gold Latex Powder Free Exam Gloves are manufactured with a proprietary single-chlorination process.

20) How are Adenna chlorinated gloves different from others?

A poor chlorination process (such as over-chlorination) can result in gloves that are brittle and weak. They tear easily and have dark yellow or brown discoloring. Sometimes the gloves can be very sticky making them difficult or impossible to put on. Or they may be very slippery without grip on the surface. Poor chlorination also produces gloves that have a strong chlorine odor.

Adenna’s single-chlorination process avoids all the above problems and gives users a glove that is even in color, strong, durable and odor free. The interior smooth surface makes donning the glove very easy, yet the outer textured surface maintains a tacky non-slip grip. Furthermore, these gloves are flat stacked in the dispensing box, which makes dispensing very convenient.

Chemical Resistance

21) Is there a chemical resistance chart that I can see how your different glove materials perform when handling various chemicals?

The chemical resistance ratings or charts provided by most if not all disposable glove companies are based on published research data, and this information is available on the internet. Below we provide a few links to such chemical resistance ratings provided by third parties.

Adenna cannot verify the accuracy of this data and therefore does not represent nor warrant that the information in these chemical resistance charts is complete or accurate. Adenna gloves have NOT been individually tested against the chemicals in these charts. The barrier properties of each glove type may be affected by the differences in material thickness, chemical concentration, length of time the gloves comes in contact with the chemicals, conditions of the environment, etc.

These chemical resistance charts should be used for reference purposes only. You should choose the appropriate glove material and thickness that best suit your applications, or test and experiment with various types of gloves to find the best fit for your application. Change gloves often and change gloves immediately as they become contaminated.

National Research Council, Prudent Practices for Handling Chemicals in Laboratories, National Academy Press. Natural Latex, Nitrile, Vinyl and Synthetic Chemical Resistance Chart

U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne National Laboratory, Glove Type and Chemical Use. http://www.aps.anl.gov/Safety_and_Training/User_Safety/gloveselection.html

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Atomic Molecular and Optical Sciences Group, Chemical Resistance of Gloves. http://amo-csd.lbl.gov/downloads/Chemical%20Resistance%20of%20Gloves.pdf

Face Masks

22) What is the filtration value of a face mask?

The filtration value of a face mask measures the percentage of particles of a certain size, filtered out by a face mask. This is determined by a face mask’s filtration material and its pore size in microns. A face mask that filters out a higher % of small particles is more protective. It is important to know both the % of particles filtered and the size of the particles. Two terms used to describe these values are Bacterial Filtration Efficiency (BFE) and Particle Filtration Efficiency (PFE).

23) What does BFE or Bacterial Filtration Efficiency measure about a face mask?

BFE or Bacterial Filtration Efficiency measures the filtration efficiency of a face mask or how well the face mask prevents passage of aerosolized bacteria. BFE is represented in % and the higher the number (%), the better and more efficient a face mask functions in filtering out bacterial particles. The BFE’s of ADENNA® and HARMONY® brand face masks are greater than 99%, exceeding the ASTM F2100-11 Level 1 (low barrier) and Level 2 (moderate barrier) requirements.

24) What does PFE or Particle Filtration Efficiency measure about a face mask?

The PFE or Particle Filtration Efficiency measures the percentage of particles that is filtered out or do not pass through at a pore size of 0.1 to 1 micron of a face mask. The higher the PFE of a face mask, the more protection it provides to the wearer. The PFE’s of ADENNA® and HARMONY® brand face masks are greater than 99% at pore size of 0.1 micron, which means the masks have filtered over 99% of all particles of 0.1 micron in size or greater, exceeding the ASTM F2100-11 Level 1 (low barrier) and Level 2 (moderate barrier) requirements.

25) Are there different levels of fluid resistance in face masks?

Yes. Fluid resistance or splash resistance is the ability of a face mask in resisting the penetration of blood and body fluids. It measures the face mask’s ability to minimize blood or fluids from traveling and penetrating through the mask material and potentially coming in contact with the wearer. A fixed volume of synthetic blood traveling at different velocities over a few short seconds in time onto the face masks is the test method the ASTM uses to measure the fluid resistance of face masks.
The synthetic blood is exerted onto the masks at three different speeds that correspond to the range of human blood pressures, i.e. 80, 120 and 160 mm Hg. Any evidence of synthetic blood penetration to the inside of the masks will constitute a failure.

A face mask is more fluid resistance when it can prevent the penetration of synthetic blood traveling at higher velocity. A fluid resistance at one of three human blood pressures of 80, 120 and 160 mm HG can be claimed under ASTM F2100-11. Hence, when two face masks that are labeled “fluid resistance” do not necessarily provide the same level of protection against fluid penetration. It is important to find out the range of synthetic blood traveling velocities it has been tested and could prevent penetration.

ADENNA® brand face masks have a fluid resistance of 120 mm HG, and HARMONY® brand face masks have a fluid resistance of 80 mm HG.

26) What is Delta P or Differential Pressure of a face mask?

Delta P or Differential Pressure is the pressure drop, measured in mm H2O/cm2, across a face mask, or a measurement of how easy or difficult a face mask allows air flowing through, which in turn determines the breathability and comfort level of the user wearing the mask. From a scale of 1 to 5, a lower Delta P of 1 to 3 means better breathability; whereas a higher Delta P of 3 and up means the wearer could feel warm, very warm or even hot and more difficult to breath though when wearing the mask.

27) Which Adenna face masks meet the ASTM Level 1 standards?

Adenna’s HARMONY® brand face masks meet the ASTM Level 1 Low Barrier standards.

ASTM F210011 Level 1 Low BarrierHARMONY® Mask
Fluid Resistance80 mm Hg80 mm Hg
Delta P<4 mm H2O/cm2<2 mm H2O/cm2
PFE≥95% @0.1 micron>99% @0.1 micron
Flame spreadClass 1Class 1
28) Which Adenna face masks meet the ASTM Level 2 standards?

The ADENNA® brand face masks that come in multiple colors meet the ASTM Level 2 Moderate Barrier standards.

ASTM F2100 – 11
Level 2 Moderate BarrierADENNA® Mask
Fluid Resistance120 mm Hg120 mm Hg
Delta P<5 mm H2O/cm2<3 mm H2O/cm2
PFE≥98% @0.1 micron>99% @0.1 micron
Flame spreadClass 1Class 1

Sterilization Pouches

29) What to consider when choosing quality sterilization pouches?

When choosing sterilization pouches, look for those that are made with heavy medical grade paper, which will minimize punctures and is also permeable to the steam in an autoclave to allow sterilization. This specially made paper should be tough enough not to tear easily even when wet. A tinted transparent film, such as in blue color, is preferred because the tint allows any tearing in the film to be more visible.

The edges are sealed and secure from separation or tearing by medical instruments. Choose pouches with three separately triple heat-sealed rails over some pouches with only double or single seal to minimized tearing. Look for both internal and external indicators that change colors whenever possible. You will find all these essential features in ADENNA® brand self-sealing sterilization pouches.

30) Why should one chooses sterilization pouches with both internal and external indicators?

According to the CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention www.cdc.gov), heat sensitive chemical indicators (e.g. those that change color after exposure to heat) on the outside of each pack only show that the pack has been processed through a sterilization cycle, but these indicators do not prove sterilization has been achieved. A chemical indicator also should be placed on the inside of each pack to verify sterilant penetration. Chemical indicators usually are either heat-or chemical-sensitive inks that change color when one or more sterilization parameters (e.g., steam-time, temperature, and/or saturated steam; ETO-time, temperature, relative humidity and/or ETO concentration) are present. ADENNA® brand self-sealing sterilization pouches consist of both built-in internal and external indicators.

31) Why it is extremely important that the plastic film is completely separated from the paper when the pouch is opened?

It is extremely important that the plastic film is completely separated from the paper when the pouch is opened, because if any portion of the film remains attached to the paper when opening (separating) the film from the paper, the contents are considered to be contaminated and must be re-sterilized. Because the film that remains attached to the paper could be exposed to elements in the air for as long as the pouch has been stored since sterilization. Should any of the contents come in contact with the film upon being picked up, it is considered contaminated.

To test the separation quality of the film from the paper of a pouch, try separate the film from the paper at the tack seals by grasping the film in one hand and the paper in the other, and completely separate them. If any film remains on the paper, repeat the process with another pouch. If film continues to leave on the paper, the quality of the pouches could be an issue.

32) Does the paper side or the film side face up or down on the trays when placing the sterilization pouches in autoclave?

The best way to place the sterilization pouches in the autoclave is by stacking them on their sides on the racks with paper facing plastic film and paper facing plastic film…and all facing the same direction, this would be ideal. The steam or chemical vapor penetrates through the paper side of the pouches, not through the film side of the pouches. Thus, placing the paper sides together may affect sterilization of the objects.

If no racks are available, then it depends on the direction of the steam flow in the sterilization chamber. If it is a gravity steam sterilizer, which the steam rises inside the pouches, place the paper side up so the steam can escape and dry better. If the plastic film side is up, it could trap the steam and condensation could collect inside the pouches under the plastic film and drip down on the instruments.

If it is a vacuum sterilizer, which the vacuum directs the steam downward to vent, place the paper side down and the plastic film side up. Pouches must be placed flat in a single layer and not stacked. Load the sterilizer so steam can surround each and every pouch. Keeping the pouches separated also maximizes the drying process.

33) How should objects be stored following sterilization?

Sterilized objects and disposable (single-use) items should be kept in the tightly sealed sterilized bags (or pouches) and be stored in an enclosed area, such as a cabinet or drawer. Dental supplies and instruments should not be stored under sinks or in other locations where they might become wet. Sterilized items should remain wrapped until they are needed for use. Unwrapped items are susceptible to contamination.

34) What is the shelf-life of sterilized objects?

Sterilized objects should be kept in the tightly sealed sterilized bags or pouches to preserve the integrity of the sterilized objects. Storage practices can be either by date or by event. Some facilities date every sterilized package and use shelf-life practices, such as first-in first-out, other facilities employ event-related practices. This approach recognizes that the objects should remain sterile until some event causes the object to become contaminated, e.g., a package becomes torn or wet).

The quality of the packaging material, the conditions under which the objects are stored and transported, and the amount that they are handled all affect the chances that the package and its contents will remain sterile. All packages containing sterile items should be inspected before use to verify barrier integrity and dryness. Any package that is wet, torn, dropped on the floor, or damaged in any way should not be used. The instruments should be cleaned again, packaged in new wrap, and sterilized again.

Even for event-related packaging, the date of sterilization should be indicated on the package. If multiple sterilizers are used in the facility, the sterilizer used should also be indicated on the outside of the packaging material. This information can facilitate retrieval of processed items in the event of a sterilization failure.

Adenna recommends that any sterilized instruments in tight sealed packages that are not used in over 3 years be cleaned again, packaged in new sterilization pouches, and be sterilized again before using.

35) What is Burst Test and Burst Strength of sterilization pouches?

A burst test is performed to evaluate the sterilization pouches failure tendencies when exposed to pressure differentials according to ASTM F1140-07 standard. During the test, the pouches are inflated by air with an increasing internal pressure until any seal failure occurs. The burst strength is measured by psi. The acceptance criteria are determined by individual facility. Certain sizes of ADENNA® brand self-sealing sterilization pouches, as a representation of the entire line, have been burst tested by an independent lab. The burst strength data and test results are available upon request. Please call an Adenna representative.

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